Reading: Multiple-coice, choose single answer

Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

I felt the wall of the tunnel shiver. The master alarm squealed through my earphones. Almost simultaneously, Jack yelled down to me that there was a warning light on. Fleeting but spectacular sights snapped into and out of view, the snow, the shower of debris, the moon, looming close and big, the dazzling sunshine for once unfiltered by layers of air. The last twelve hours before re-entry were particular bone-chilling. During this period, I had to go up in to command module. Even after the fiery re-entry splashing down in 81o water in south pacific, we could still see our frosty breath inside the command module.

Which one of the following reasons would one consider as more as possible for the warning lights to be on?

Laws of nature are not commands but statements of acts. The use of the word "law" in this context is rather unfortunate. It would be better to speak of uniformities in nature. This would do away with the elementary fallacy that a law implies a law giver. If a piece of matter does not obey a law of nature it is punished. On the contrary, we say that the law has been incorrectly started.

If a piece of matter violates nature's law, it is not punished because

At this stage of civilisation, when many nations are brought in to close and vital contact for good and evil, it is essential, as never before, that their gross ignorance of one another should be diminished, that they should begin to understand a little of one another's historical experience and resulting mentality. It is the fault of the English to expect the people of other countries to react as they do, to political and international situations. Our genuine goodwill and good intentions are often brought to nothing, because we expect other people to be like us. This would be corrected if we knew the history, not necessarily in detail but in broad outlines, of the social and political conditions which have given to each nation its present character.

Englishmen like others to react to political situations like

Male lions are rather reticent about expanding their energy in hunting more than three quarters of kills are made by lionesses are in front, tensely scanning ahead, the cubs lag playfully behind and the males bring up the rear, walking slowly, their massive heads nodding with each step as if they were bored with the whole matter. But slothfulness may have survival value. With lionesses busy hunting, the males function as guard for the cubs, protecting them particularly from hyenas.

According to the passage male lions generally do not go for hunting because

What needs to be set right is our approach to work. It is a common sight in our country of employees reporting for duty on time and at the same time doing little work. If an assessment is made of time they spent in gossiping, drinking tea, eating "pan" and smoking cigarettes, it will be shocking to know that the time devoted to actual work is negligible. The problem is the standard which the leadership in administration sets for the staff. Forgot the ministers because they mix politics and administration. What do top bureaucrats do? What do the below down officials do? The administration set up remains week mainly because the employees do not have the right example to follow and they are more concerned about being in the good books of the bosses than doing work.

The central idea of passage could be best expressed by the following

Speech is great blessings but it can also be great curse, for while it helps us to make our intentions and desires known to our fellows, it can also if we use it carelessly, make our attitude completely misunderstood. A slip of the tongue, the use of unusual word, or of an ambiguous word, and so on, may create an enemy where we had hoped to win a friend. Again, different classes of people use different vocabularies, and the ordinary speech of an educated may strike an uneducated listener as pompous. Unwittingly, we may use a word which bears a different meaning to our listener from what it does to men of our own class. Thus speech is not a gift to use lightly without thought, but one which demands careful handling. Only a fool will express himself alike to all kinds and conditions to men.

A 'slip of the tongue' means something said

Organisations are institutions in which members compete for status and power. They compete for resource of the organisation, for example finance to expand their own departments, for career advancement and for power to control the activities of others. In pursuit of these aims, grouped are formed and sectional interests emerge. As a result, policy decisions may serve the ends of political and career systems rather than those of the concern. In this way, the goals of the organisation may be displaced in favour of sectional interests and individual ambition. These preoccupations sometimes prevent the emergence of organic systems. Many of the electronic firms in the study had recently created research and development departments employing highly qualified and well paid scientists and technicians. Their high pay and expert knowledge were sometimes seen as a threat to the established order of rank, power and privilege. Many senior managers had little knowledge of technicality and possibilities of new developments and electronics. Some felt that close cooperation with the experts in an organic system would reveal their ignorance and show their experience was now redundant.

"Organic system" as related to the organization implies its

Corduroy is fast establishing itself at this year's fabric, While the ribbed cotton itself provides utilitarian tenaciary, texture and warmth. it is the fabric's long held associations may provide a hint to its current revival as a fabric for all seasons.

It is Corduroy's link with the good breeding and country living that made it an essential ingredient in the gentleman's wardrobe along with Wellington boots and decent woolly. It combines the comfortable nonsense appeal of cotton with the perfectly correct luxury finish of velvet. Corduroy has the ability to appear either supremely sophisticated or rough and ready.

According to the author, the special quality of corduroy is that

The enjoyment of physical possession of things would seem to be one of the prerogatives of wealth which has been little impaired. Presumably nothing has happened to keep the man who can afford them from enjoying his Rembrandt and his home-grown orchids. But enjoyment of things has always been associated with the third prerogative of wealth which is the distinct it confers. In a world where nearly everyone was poor, the distinction was very great. It was the natural consequence of rarity. In England it is widely agreed, the ducal families are not uniformly superior. There is a roughly normal incidence of intelligence and stupidity, good taste and bad taste, morality, immorality. But very few people are dukes and duchesses, although the later have become rather more frequent with modern easing of divorce laws. As a result, even though they may be intrinsically unexceptional they are regarded with some awe. So it has long have been with the rich. Were dukes numerous their position would deteriorate. As the rich have become more numerous, they have inevitably becomes a debased currency.

The enjoyment of the physical possession of things

Until the end of his first year at school, Cyril retained many of the pleasures and pursuits he had brought with him from home, and he kept an old interest in butterflies and fossils. His grandmother had presented him with a fine bird's eggs cabinet, but he could never bring himself to risk in climbing trees. Once or twice he dissected dead birds from sheer determination to overcome his horror of the operation. Probably it was his envy of those physically unlike himself that brought on a phase during which he drew massive athletes with thick necks and square shoulders. Again he was pitying himself for what he could never be.

The reason Why Cyril made drawings of athletes was that

The assault on the purity of the environment is the price that we pay for many of the benefits of modern technology. For the advantage of automotive transportation we pay a price in smog-induced diseases; for the powerful effects of new insecticides, we pay a price in dwindling wildlife and disturbances in the relation of living things and their surroundings; for nuclear power, we risk the biological hazards of radiation. By increasing agricultural production with fertilizers, we worsen water population.

The highly developed nations of the world are not only the immediate beneficiaries of the good that technology can do, that are also the first victims of environmental diseases that technology breeds. In the past, the environmental effects which accompanied technological progress were restricted to a small and relatively short time. the new hazards neither local nor brief. Modern air pollution's cover vast areas of continents: Radioactive fallout from the nuclear explosion is worldwide. Radioactive pollutants now on the earth surface will be found there for generations, and in case of Carbon-14, for thousands of years.

The widespread use of insecticides has

There was a marked difference of quality between the personages who haunted near bridge of brick and the personages who haunted the far one of stone. Those of lowest character preferred the former, adjoining the town; they did not mind the glare of the public eye. they had been of no account during their successes; and though they might feel dispirited, they had no sense of shame in their ruin. Instead of sighing at their adversaries they spat, and instead of saying the iron had entered into their souls they said they were down in their luck. The miserable's who would pause on the remoter bridge of a politer stamp persons who did not know how to get rid of the weary time. The eyes of his species were mostly directed over the parapet upon the running water below. While one on the town ward bridge did not mind who saw him so, and kept his back to parapet to survey the passer-by, one on this never faced the road, never turned his head at coming foot-steps, but, sensitive on his own condition, watched the current whenever a stranger approached, as if some strange fish interested him, though every finned thing had been poached out of the rivers years before.

In this passage the author is trying to

Nationalism, of course, is a curious phenomenon which at a certain stage in a country's history gives life, growth and unity but, at the same time, it has a tendency to limit one, because one thinks of one's country as something different from the rest of world. One's perceptive changes and one is continuously thinking of one's own struggles and virtues and failing to the exclusion of other thoughts. The result is that the same nationalism which is the symbol of growth for a people becomes a symbol of the cessation of that growth in mind. Nationalism, when it becomes successful sometimes goes on spreading in an aggressive way and becomes a danger internationally. Whatever line of thought you follow, you arrive at the conclusion that some kind of balance must be found. Otherwise something that was good can turn into evil. Culture, which is essentially good become not only static but aggressive and something that breeds conflict and hatred when looked at from a wrong point of view. How are you find a balance, I don't know. Apart from the political and economic problems of the age, perhaps, that is the greatest problem today because behind it there is tremendous search for something which it cannot found. We turn to economic theories because they have an undoubted importance. It is folly to talk of culture or even of god. When human beings starve and die. Before one can talk about anything else one must provide the normal essentials of life to human beings. That is where economies come in. Human beings today are not in mood to tolerate this suffering and starvation and inequality when they see that the burden is not equally shared. Others profit while they only bear the burden.

Suitable title for this passage can be

Detective glories tend to glorify crime. Murderers, gangsters and crooks all kinds are described as tough, cunning and courageous individuals who know how to take care of themselves and how to get what they want. In James McCain's The Postman Always Rings twice, for instance the villain is much more a impressive character than his victim. He is casual brave smart and successful with women. It is true that he finally gets caught. But he is punished for a crime that he did not commit, so that his conviction is hardly a triumph of justice. Besides, looking back over the exciting life of the criminal, the reader might conclude that it was worth the risk.

According to this passage, a criminal in a detective story generally gets caught

There is modicum of truth in the assertion that "a working knowledge of ancient history is necessary to the intelligent interpretation of current events". But the sage who uttered these words of wisdom might well have added something on the benefits of studying, particularly, the famous battles of history for the lessons they contain for those of us who lead or aspire to leadership. Such a study will reveal certain qualities and attributes which enabled the winners to win and certain deficiencies which caused the losers to lose. And the student will see that the same patterns recurs consistently, again and again, throughout the centuries.

A person who aspires to lead could learn from the history of battles

The casual horrors and real disasters are thrown at newspaper reader without discrimination. In the contemporary arrangements for circulating the news, an important element, evaluation is always weak and often wanting entirely. There is no point anywhere along the line somewhere someone put his foot down for certain and says, "This is important and that does not amount to row of beans; deserves no one’s attention, and should travel the wires no farther". The junk is dressed up to look as meaningful as the real news.

Newspapers lack a sense of discrimination because

The greatest thing this age can be proud of is the birth of man in the consciousness of men. In his drunken orgies of power and national pride man may flout and jeer at it. when organised national selfishness, racial antipathy and commercial self seeking begin to display their ugly deformities in all their nakedness, then comes the time for man to know that his salvation is not in political organisations and extended trade relations, not in any mechanical re-arrangement of social system but in a deeper transformation of life, in the liberation of consciousness in love, in the realization of God in man.

The author uses the expression 'ugly deformities' to show his indignation at

Courage is not only the basis of virtue; it is its expression. faith, hope, charity and all the rest don't become virtues until it takes courage to exercise them. There are roughly two types of courage. the first an emotional state which urges a man to risk injury or death, is physical courage. The second, more reasoning attitude which enables him to take coolly his career, happiness, his whole future or his judgement of what he thinks either right or worthwhile, is moral courage. I have known many men, who had marked physical courage, but lacked moral courage. Some of them were in high places, but they failed to be great in themselves because they lacked moral courage. On the other hand I have seen men who undoubtedly possessed moral courage but were very cautious about taking physical risks. But I have never met a man with moral courage who couldn't, when it was really necessary, face a situation boldly.

Physical courage is an expression of

The strength of the electronics industry in Japan is the Japanese ability to organise production and marketing rather than their achievements in original research. The British are generally recognised as a far more inventive collection of individuals, but never seem able to exploit what they invent. There are many examples, from the TSR Z hovercraft, high speed train and Sinclair scooter to the Triumph, BSA and Norton Motorcycle which all prove this sad rule. The Japanese were able to exploits their strengths in marketing and development many years ago, and their success was at first either not understood in the West or was dismissed as something which could have been produced only at their low price. They were sold because they were cheap copies of other people's ideas churned out of a workhouse which was dedicated to hard grind above all else.

The TSR Z hovercraft, high speed train, Sinclair scooter etc. are the symbols of

The object underlying the rules of natural justice "is to prevent miscarriage of justice" and secure "fair play in action" As pointed out earlier the requirement about recording of reasons for its decision by an administrative authority exercising quasi-judicial functions achieves his object by excluding changes of arbitrariness and ensuring a degree of fairness in the process of decision making. Keeping in view the expanding horizon of the principle of natural justice which govern exercise of power by administrative authorities. The rules of natural justice are not embodied rules. The extent of their application depends upon the particularly statutory framework where under jurisdiction has been conferred on the administrative authority. with regard to the exercise of particular power by an administrative authority including exercise of judicial or quasi-judicial functions the legislature, while conferring the said power, may feel that it would not be in the larger public interest that the reasons for the order passed by the administrative authority be recorded in the order and be communicated to the aggrieved party and it may dispense with such a requirement.

According to the passage, there is always a gap between

It is to progress in the human sciences that we must look to undo the evils which have resulted from a knowledge of physical world hastily and superficially acquired by population unconscious of the changes in themselves that the new knowledge has imperative. The road to a happier world than any known in the past lies open before us if atavistic destructive passions can be kept in leash while the necessary adaptations are made. Fears are inevitable in time, but hopes are equally rational and far more likely to bear good fruit. We must learn to think rather less of the dangers to be avoided than of the good that will lie within our grasp if we can believe in it and let it dominate our thoughts. Science, whatever unpleasant consequences it may have by the way, is in its very nature a liberator, a liberator of bondage to physical nature and in time to come, a liberator from the weight of destructive passions. We are on the threshold of utter disaster or unprecedentedly glorious achievement. No previous age has been fraught with problems so momentous; and it is to science that we must look to for a happy future.

Should human sciences be developed because they will

In the world today we make health and end in itself. We have forgotten that health is really means to enable a person to do his work and do it well. a lot of modern medicine and this includes many patients as well as many physicians pays very little attention to health but very much attention to those who imagine that they are ill. Our great concern with health is shown by the medical columns in newspapers. the health articles in popular magazines and the popularity of television programmes and all those books on medicine. We talk about health all the time. Yet for the most part the only result is more people with imaginary illness. The healthy man should not be wasting time talking about health: he should be using health for work. The work does the work that good health possible.

Modern medicine is primarily concerned with

A man is known by the book he reads as well as by the company he keeps; for there is a companionship of books as well as of men and one should always live in the best company, whether it be of books or of men.

A good book may be among the best of friends. It is the same today that it always was, and it will never change. It is the most patient and cheerful of companions. It does not turn its back upon in times of adversity or distress. It always receives us with the same kindness; amusing and interesting us in youth, comforting and consoling us in age.

According to the passage, which of the following statements is not true?

Biologists have long maintained that two groups of pinnipeds, sea lions and walruses, are descended from a terrestrial bearlike animal, whereas the remaining group, seals, shares an ancestor with weasels. But the recent discovery of detailed similarities in the skeletal structure of the flippers in all three groups undermines the attempt to explain away superficial resemblance as due to convergent evolution—the independent development of similarities between unrelated groups in response to similar environmental pressures. Flippers may indeed be a necessary response to aquatic life; turtles, whales, and dugongs also have them. But the common detailed design found among the pinnipeds probably indicates a common ancestor. Moreover, walruses and seals drive themselves through the water with thrusts of their hind flippers, but sea lions use their front flippers. If anatomical similarity in the flippers resulted from similar environmental pressures, as posited by the convergent evolution theory, one would expect walruses and seals, but not seals and sea lions, to have similar flippers.

According to the passage, it has been recently discovered that

In The Women of Mexico City, 1796-1857, Sylvia Marina Arrom argues that the status of women in Mexico City improved during the nineteenth century. According to Arrom, households headed by females and instances of women working outside the home were much more common than scholars have estimated; efforts by the Mexican government to encourage female education resulted in increased female literacy; and influential male writers wrote pieces advocating education, employment, and increased family responsibilities for women, while deploring women's political and marital inequality. Mention of the fact that the civil codes of 1870 and 1884 significantly advanced women's rights would have further strengthened Arrom's argument. Arrom does not discuss whether women's improved status counteracted the effects on women of instability in the Mexican economy during the nineteenth century. However, this is not so much a weakness in her work as it is the inevitable result of scholars' neglect of this period. Indeed, such gaps in Mexican history are precisely what make Arrom's pioneering study an important addition to Latin American women's history.

The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?

The transplantation of organs from one individual to another normally involves two major problems: (1) organ rejection is likely unless the transplantation antigens of both individuals are nearly identical, and (2) the introduction of any unmatched transplantation antigens induces the development by the recipient of donor-specific lymphocytes that will produce violent rejection of further transplantations from that donor. However, we have found that among many strains of rats these "normal" rules of transplantation are not obeyed by liver transplants. Not only are liver transplants never rejected, but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organs, such as skin, from that donor are accepted permanently. Our hypothesis is that (1) many strains of rats simply cannot mount a sufficiently vigorous destructive immune-response (using lymphocytes) to outstrip the liver's relatively great capacity to protect itself from immune-response damage and that (2) the systemic unresponsiveness observed is due to concentration of the recipient's donor-specific lymphocytes at the site of the liver transplant.

The primary purpose of the passage is to treat the accepted generalizations about organ transplantation in which of the following ways?

Historically, a cornerstone of classical empiricism has been the notion that every true generalization must be confirmable by specific observations. In classical empiricism, the truth of "All balls are red," for example, is assessed by inspecting balls; any observation of a non red ball refutes unequivocally the proposed generalization. For W. V. O. Quine, however, this constitutes an overly "narrow" conception of empiricism. "All balls are red," he maintains, forms one strand within an entire web of statements (our knowledge); individual observations can be referred only to this web as a whole. As new observations are collected, he explains, they must be integrated into the web. Problems occur only if a contradiction develops between a new observation, say, "That ball is blue," and the preexisting statements. In that case, he argues, any statement or combination of statements (not merely the "offending" generalization, as in classical empiricism) can be altered to achieve the fundamental requirement, a system free of contradictions, even if, in some cases, the alteration consists of labeling the new observation a "hallucination.

The author of the passage is primarily concerned with presenting

One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spiders is whether the weaving of orb webs evolved only once or several times. About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs. Since most orb weavers belong either to the Araneidae or the Uloboridae families, the origin of the orb web can be determined only by ascertaining whether the families are related. Recent taxonomic analysis of individuals from both families indicates that the families evolved from different ancestors, thereby contradicting Wiehle's theory. This theory postulates that the families must be related, based on the assumption that complex behavior, such as web building, could evolve only once. According to Kullman, web structure is the only characteristic that suggests a relationship between families. The families differ in appearance, structure of body hair, and arrangement of eyes. Only Uloborids lack venom glands. Further identification and study of characteristic features will undoubtedly answer the question of the evolution of the orb web.

It can be inferred from the passage that all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that

Submarine operators have been alerted to the dangers of sea snails in a recent study. An international research team says the hardy deep-sea animals latch on to the submarines used by scientists. potentially spreading disease in pristine ecosystems. The limpet is a sea snail that lives 2,000 meters underwater but can also survive in the air when a submarine emerges from the water. If it goes unnoticed, the limpet can find itself in another habitat the next time the submarine is used. As 90 percent of limpets are infected by parasites, this poses a threat to the ecosystem; but thoroughly cleaning the submarines will solve the problem.

What problem does the article mention in relation to sea snails?

People tend to think that any new technology or device is an act of genius; something that has required vision and insight to create and then develop into a marketable product. The fact is that innovations were often already 'out there' in the public domain in some form or another. They tend to evolve from notions that have been around for years but that had not. until that point, been suitably adapted. One expert calls this the 'long nose' approach to innovation, whereby new concepts come into the world slowly. gradually revealing all they have to offer.

What is the writer's main point about innovation?

Huge reserves of energy have been found in rocks far below the surface of the ground in Britain. It is estimated that the north and southwest regions could hold enough energy in the form of heat to provide power for millions of homes. In fact, up to a fifth of Britain's energy could be provided by this geothermal source. Extracting the heat and converting it into electricity is difficult and expensive. Thousands of boreholes would be needed; but once they were in place, the heat would keep regenerating indefinitely.

What is the writer's main purpose in this paragraph?

Not surprisingly, the crime victims are often called upon to identify the person who robbed or attacked them. For a jury, the victim’s testimony is often proof positive that the accused is guilty. After all, who can better identify the wrongdoer than the person harmed. This is just common sense. Yet as is so often the case, common sense can be misleading. As it turns out, crime victims don’t necessarily make reliable witnesses. Overcome with fear, they often close their eyes or focus fixedly on the weapon being used to threaten them. As a result, they don’t get a good look at the thief or attacker. While it’s not true that crime victim testimony is always inaccurate, it’s also true that one can’t assume a victim’s identification is automatic proof of guilt.

Which of the following most accurately summarizes the opinion of the author in the text?

Many of us have become aware that statistically, the majority of Americans are overweight. Although we hear this often in the media, not everybody may realize the implications of this fact for health care and ultimately for our national economy. Not only is excess weight associated with heart disease, a number of different cancers, and other problems; it especially is associated with diabetes. In 2011, 28.5 million of American citizens had diabetes. An additional 66 million Americans had pre-diabetic symptoms. In 2011, medical costs for diabetics were $174 billion per year. Research from a health insurance company projected that by 2020, diabetes would cost America $3.4 trillion per year. The federal government would pay over 60% of that total. Accordingly, some organizations have recommended that losing weight by reducing our intake of high-calorie foods could help save the government money by lowering the risk, and hence the incidence, of diabetes. As a result, improving our physical health also can improve our fiscal health.

Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of this passage?

When learners can act from their most vital selves, their curiosity emerges. They want to make sense of things and seek out challenges that are in their range of capacities and values. This leads to what human beings experience as interest, the emotional nutrient for a continuing positive attitude toward learning. When we feel interested, we have to make choices about what to do to follow that interest. Such choosing or self-determination involves a sense of feeling free in doing what one has chosen to do (Deci and Ryan, 1991). For the process of learning—thinking, practicing, reading, revising, studying, and other similar activities—to be desirable and genuinely enjoyable, adults must see themselves as personally endorsing their own learning.

According to the passage, which of the following is true?

The social sciences are less likely than other intellectual enterprises to get credit for their accomplishments. Arguably, this is so because the theories and conceptual constructs of the social sciences are especially accessible: human intelligence apprehends truths about human affairs with a particular facility. And the discoveries of the social sciences, once isolated and labeled, are quickly absorbed into conventional wisdom, whereupon they lose their distinctiveness as scientific advances.

This under-appreciation of the social sciences contrasts oddly with what many see as their over-utilization. Game theory is pressed into service in studies of shifting international alliances. Evaluation research is called upon to demonstrate successes or failures of social programs. Models from economics and demography become the definitive tools for examining the financial base of social security. Yet this rush into practical applications is itself quite understandable: public policy must continually be made, and policymakers rightly feel that even tentative findings and untested theories are better guides to decision-making than no findings and no theories at all.

The author is primarily concerned with

By 1784, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was internationally renowned as the composer of The Marriage of Figaro, and consequently received a commission from the Prague Opera House to compose another opera.

The resulting product was Don Giovanni, which tells the tale of a criminal and seducer who nevertheless evokes sympathy from audiences, and whose behavior fluctuates from moral crisis to hilarious escapade.

While Don Giovanni is widely considered to be Mozart’s greatest achievement, eighteenth century audiences in Vienna — Mozart’s own city — were ambivalent at best. The opera mixed traditions of moralism with those of comedy — a practice heretofore unknown among the composer’s works — creating a production that was not well liked by conservative Viennese audiences. Meanwhile, however, Don Giovanni was performed to much acclaim throughout Europe.

The primary purpose of the passage is to

Stars create energy through the process of fusion. When a star explodes—a phenomenon called a supernova—so much energy is released that heavy metals such as iron and gold are formed, seeding surrounding hydrogen clouds. Newer stars therefore contain more heavy elements in their atmospheres. Heavy elements form the materials that make up our planet (and even human bodies). It is believed that for a system of planets such as our solar system to form around a star during cloud contraction, the presence of these heavy elements in the cloud is a necessity.

A molecular cloud can become unstable and collapse by the force of gravity, overcoming outward thermal pressure of the constituent gases. At a given temperature and density, two critical measures of size, Jeans mass and Jeans length, can be calculated. If the size of the cloud exceeds either of these critical values, gravity will ultimately win, and the probability of eventual cloud contraction is high. However, some outside influence is still evidently required for a theoretically unstable cloud to initiate collapse.

The natural rotation of a galaxy can slowly alter the structure of a cloud, for instance. Surrounding supernovae can generate shock-waves powerful enough to affect the debris in other clouds, forcing the debris inward and possibly causing contraction to begin. One theory states that density waves propagating through spiral structures can also sufficiently stimulate clouds to cause contraction.

Which of the following inferences about our solar system is best supported by the passage?

For many years, most physicists supported one of two cosmological theories: the steady-state universe, , and the Big Bang. The theory of the steady-state universe states that the universe has always existed exactly as we observe it at present, whereas the Big Bang theory postulates that the universe was conceived from a singularity in space-time that has expanded into current universe. The validity of either theory was not tested until 1900 when Edwin Hubble famously discovered what is now known as Hubble’s Law.Hubble’s experiment is now a famous benchmark in modern physics. Hubble, using the Mount Wilson Observatory, observed a class of stars known as Cepheid variables, luminous stars that blink and flicker with a rate that depends on their distance from the observer.

Using this relation and years of observing, Hubble calculated the distance to many of these variable stars. Milton Humason, a fellow astronomer, helped Hubble to calculate the stars’ relative velocities to Earth. When Hubble combined the two data sets he found an interesting relationship: all the stars appeared to be moving away from us! In fact, the speed at which they were moving increased with an increasing distance from Earth.Hubble realized, from this small set of data, that the earth was a part of the expanding universe.

As the universe expands outward in all directions, any observer from a fixed vantage point will look out and see everything running away from them. The further away any two points are, the more the expansion affects them, and the faster they appear to be moving away from each other. Hubble’s result was the first experimental proof that we do not live in a steady-state universe, but rather a dynamic and expanding one.

Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

The American people have an incorrect understanding of what it means to be at war. At least so argues T.H. Pickett in his conservative interpretation of American military history.

Pickett does present a wealth of examples along with a refreshing candid argument that America often goes to war for an abstract ideal such as the democratization of societies, world peace, liberty, or freedom. For instance, the Spanish – American War of 1898 was ostensibly a consequence of national enthusiasm for the cause of Cuban liberty. And, more obviously, America’s entry into World War I stemmed from a desire to “make the world safe for democracy.”

Although these observations are supportable, Pickett overstates the cause typically lead to a war hysteria in which American leadership can no longer enforce any measured policies.

Which of the following best states the author’s main point?

Autism is a brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication and causes restricted and repetitive behavior, all starting before a child is three years old. The genetics of autism are complex and it is generally unclear which genes are responsible for it. Autism affects many parts of the brain but how this occurs is also poorly understood. Autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects. Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial and the vaccine hypotheses lack convincing scientific evidence. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life. Early behavioral cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social and communication skills but there is no cure for it. Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but same become successful and an autistic culture has developed, with same seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder.

It can be understood from the passage that

Researchers suggest that there are creatures that do not know what light means at the bottom of the sea.They don’t have either eyes or ears; they can only feel.There is no day or night for them. There are no winters, no summers, no sun, no moon, and no stars. It is as if a child spent its life in darkness in bed, with nothing to see or hear. How different our own life is! Sight shows us the ground beneath our feet and the heavens above us – the sun, moon, and stars, shooting stars, lightning, and the sunset. It shows us day and night. We are able to hear voices, the sound of the sea, and music. We feel we taste, we smell. How fortunate we are!

Judging from the passage, we can say that this story is mainly about?

For instance, it has been suggested that schools embodying this idea could develop more effective teaching methods that could then be replicated in other schools. Character schools public schools that operate under a contract, or “charter” were given just such an opportunity beginning in 1991 when Minnesota passed the first charter school law. At that time, many critics warned of deleterious rather than beneficial effects that such freewheeling schools could have on the academic achievement of students. Thus, while public opinion differed concerning the social desirability of charter schools, most agreed that there would be a pronounced effect.

Surprisingly, educators who study educational reform now seriously question the degree to which charter schools have made an impact. That conclude that freedom from many of the policies and regulations affecting traditional public schools and the concomitant control over decisions that guide the day – to – day affairs of the School have not resulted in equally dramatic changes in student’s academic performance. In some state performance standards than traditional public schools. It is, however, impossible to know whether this difference is due to the performance of the schools, the prior achievement of the students, or some other factor.

Metrics for educational accountability have changed considerably in the past decade, moving increasingly to performance as measured by state mandated tests of individual student achievement. Fundamentally, however, the challenging conditions under which schools operate, be they traditional or charter, have changed little: the struggle for resources, low pay for teachers, accountability to multiple stakeholders, and the difficulty of meeting the educational requirements for children with special needs all persist.

Which of the following statements best summarizes the main point of the passage?

Unemployment was the overriding fact of life when Franklin D. Roosevelt became president of the United States on March 4, 1933. An anomaly of the time was that the government did not systematically collect statistics of joblessness; actually it did not start doing so until 1940. The Bureau of Labor Statistics later estimated that 12,830,000 persons were out of work in 1933, about one-fourth of a civilian labor force of more than 51 million.

Roosevelt signed the Federal Emergency Relief Act on May 12, 1933. The president selected Harry L. Hopkins, who headed the New York relief program, to run FERA. A gifted administrator, Hopkins quickly put the program into high gear. He gathered a small staff in Washington and brought the state relief organizations into the FERA system.

While the agency tried to provide all the necessities, food came first. City dwellers usually got an allowance for fuel, and rent for one month was provided in case of eviction.

This passage is primarily about

Theories are divided about the cause of the Permian mass extinctions. Some hypothesize that the impact of a massive asteroid caused a sudden disappearance of species. However, a look at the carbon – isotope record suggests that existing plant communities were struck down and re-found several times. To produce such a pattern would require a succession of asteroid strikes thousands of years apart. Other theorists have proposed that volcanic explosions raised the Corban dioxide level leading to intense global warming. One problem with this theory is that it cannot explain the massive marine extinctions at the end of the Permian period. A new theory posits that rising concentrations of toxic hydrogen sulphide in the world’s oceans plus gradual oxygen depletion in the surface waters caused the extinctions. Fortunately, this theory is testable. If true, oceanic sediments from the Permian period would yield chemical evidence of a rise in hydrogen sulphide – consuming bacteria.

The primary purpose of the passage is to

Emailing has become one of the most popular means of communication. Every year almost 4 – 5 trillion e–mails are sent globally from almost 600 million electronic mail boxes. The stats have shot up since 1995. A survey shows almost six fold increase in e–mailing between employers and employees during this period. And since e-mailing is a form of formal text messaging, it has not interfered much with informal face to face communication. It is highly beneficial in organized communication. Most of the working people prefer e–mail and face to face communication over telephone conversation or written memos. Candidates can e–mail their resumes, contact on internet and give interviews through video conferencing. Even business tycoons prefer transferring their business reports through email.

What main point is the author trying to make?

Stump-Up was invented in 1986 by Tokyo Beverages Owner Okawa Bhery. The name for the product was actually proposed by Okawa’s assistant, Fizzy Brewndon. The name was taken from the two most unusual ingredients in the drink, the Canadian banana leaf and the Asian stump root. The recipe for today’s Stump-Up is very well guarded. Many of the ingredients are known; in addition to banana leaves and stump root, they include strawberry, cocoa, lemon, cinnamon, nuts, vanilla, caramel, salts and sugar. The proportions of the ingredients and the identity of Stump’s secret ingredients are known by only a few of the Stump-Up Company’s very senior scientists and Vice-Presidents.

It can be inferred from the passage that

Jupiter has 2.5 times more mass than all the other planets of the solar system combined and is 11 times as large as Earth in diameter. Jupiter is so large that scientists believe it almost became a star: as the gasses and dust contracted to the form the planet, gravitational forces created tremendous pressure and the temperature inside the core—as high as tens of thousands of degrees. But there was not enough mass available to create the temperature needed to start a fusion reaction such as that of the Sun (above 27,000,000 Fahrenheit, or 15,000,000 Celsius, at the Sun’s core); thus Jupiter has been cooling down ever since. Even so, Jupiter radiates about as much heat as it receives from the Sun.

The passage is mainly concerned with

Every day millions of lights and computers are left on in deserted offices, apartments and houses. Environmental activists say that simply switching them off could cut Sydney's greenhouse gas emissions by five percent over the next year. Per capita, Australia is one of the world's largest producers of carbon dioxide and other gases that many scientists believe are helping to warm the Earth's atmosphere, causing climate upset. A long-standing drought and serious water shortages in Australia have focused much attention on climate change. Some experts warn higher temperatures could leave this nation of 20 million people at the mercy of more severe droughts and devastating tropical cyclones.

One present indicator of climate change in Australia is ?

The artists were not a rich man's frivolous addition to his entourage but an essential part of a scientific team in the age before photography. Their principal task was to draw the specimens that the scientists collected. Although the naturalists, such as Banks, intended to preserve some of their specimens and take them home to England, it would not be practical to do so with all of them. Banks also expected to dissect certain animals, and the artists would preserve a record of this work. In addition to their scientific drawings, Banks wanted the artists to sketch the people and places they visited.

Which of the following can be inferred from the text?

Traditional research has confronted only Mexican and United States interpretations of Mexican- American culture. Now we must also examine the culture as we Mexican Americans have experienced it, passing from a sovereign people to compatriots with newly arriving settlers to, finally, a conquered people - a charter minority on our own land.

When the Spanish first came to Mexico, they intermarried with and absorbed the culture of the indigenous Indians. This policy of colonization through acculturation was continued when Mexico acquired Texas in the early 1800's and brought to the indigenous Indians into Mexican life and government. In the 1820's, United States citizens migrated to Texas, attracted by land suitable for cotton. As their numbers became more substantial, their policy of acquiring land by subduing native populations began to dominate. The two ideologies clashed repeatedly, culminating in a military conflict that led to victory for the United States. Thus, suddenly deprived of our parent culture, we had to evolve uniquely Mexican- American modes of thought and action in order to survive.

The author's purpose in writing this passage is primarily to

Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other masses, the great variety of plants in Hawaii must be a result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds, a process that requires both a method of transport and equivalence between the ecology of the source area and that of the recipient area. There is some dispute about the method of transport involved. Some biologists argue that ocean and air currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii. Yet the results of flotation experiments and the low temperatures of air currents cast doubt on these hypotheses. More probable is bird transport, either externally, by accidental attachment of the seeds to feathers, or internally, by the swallowing of fruit and subsequent excretion of the seeds. While it is likely that fewer varieties of plant seeds have reached Hawaii externally than internally, more varieties are known to be adapted to external than to internal transport.

The author is primarily concerned with

Of all the crocodilians, the saltwater crocodile has the strongest tendency to treat humans as prey, and has a long history of attacking humans who unknowingly venture into its territory. As a result of its power, intimidating size and speed, survival of a direct predatory attack is unlikely if the crocodile is able to make direct contact. By contrast to the American policy of encouraging a certain degree of habitat coexistence with alligators, the only recommended policy for dealing with saltwater crocodiles is to completely avoid their habitat whenever possible, as they are exceedingly aggressive when encroached upon.

Exact data on attacks are limited outside Australia, where one or two fatal attacks are reported per year. From 1971 to 2013, the total number of fatalities reported in Australia due to saltwater crocodile attack was 106. The low level of attacks may be due to extensive efforts by wildlife officials in Australia to post crocodile warning signs at numerous at-risk billabongs, rivers, lakes and beaches. In the Northern Territory in Australia, attempts have been made to relocate saltwater crocodiles who have displayed aggressive behaviour towards humans but these have proven ineffective as the problem crocodiles are apparently able to find their way back towards their original territories. In the Darwin area from 2007–2009, 67–78% of "problem crocodiles" were identified as males.

Non-fatal attacks usually involve crocodiles of 3 m (9 ft 10 in) or less in length. Fatal attacks, more likely to be predatory in motivation, commonly involve larger crocodiles with an average estimated size of 4.3 m (14 ft 1 in).

What are two reasons the saltwater crocodile is so dangerous?

You can only submit a paper by entering into the “classroom” of a class in which you are enrolled. Enter the classroom by clicking on the class name in your class portfolio. Your classroom page is divided into two board sections: to the left is your assignment list and to the right is your portfolio.

In your assignment list, to the right of the assignment that you must submit, you will see an icon of the document beneath the submit column. Click this to submit an assignment. You will now be asked to attach your assignment. Before you submit your assignment, you will need a copy the following declaration and paste at the top of your tittle page.

I declare that this assignment is original and has not been submitted for assessment elsewhere and acknowledge that the assessor of this assignment may, for the purpose of assessing this assignment:

• Reproduce this assignment and provide a copy to another member of faculty; and/or

• Communicate a copy of this assignment to a plagiarism checking service (which may then retain a copy of the assignment on its database for the purpose of future plagiarism checking).

Click on submit button.

The process outlined for the submission of papers is mainly intended to address which of the following problems?

Millions of people take dietary supplements in the belief that they boost health. New research casts doubt on these pills and tablets. The American organisation Consumer Reports (CR) found serious health risks from vitamins, probiotics, and weight loss pills. CR said the biggest problem is that supplements are largely unregulated. Medicinal drugs have to be tested for safety and effectiveness, but supplements need much less government approval. This means consumers are in the dark regarding the ingredients of the supplements and how the body reacts to them.

Lisa Gill from CR said the report showed the dangers of supplements. She said they could cause liver and kidney failure, kidney transplants, and heart problems. Gill added: "Just because it's not prescription, you say, 'oh, it's safe,' but that's not necessarily true." She urged people to avoid 15 ingredients in supplements, including red yeast and caffeine powder. She warned: "There have been deaths associated with each of these." She told people to see a doctor or pharmacist before taking supplements. She said: "Treat it like a medication….It's really about your health."

What is not a criticism levelled at dietary supplements in the article?

College writing assignments generally ask you to respond in some way to sources. Some assignments will require you to consult only sources assigned in class, while others will require you to locate your own sources relevant to a specific research topic. In many of your courses, your research will focus primarily on written texts such as books and scholarly articles, but you may also be asked to consult a variety of other sources, including letters, diaries, films, works of art, data from experiments, numerical data, surveys, and transcripts of interviews.

What constitutes a useful and reliable source will vary according to both your assignment and the methods used in a particular field of study. As you approach a paper in an unfamiliar field, it will be important to remember that within each field of study, scholars distinguish between primary sources, or the raw material that they analyze as they attempt to answer a question, and secondary sources, or the analyses of that raw material done by other scholars in the field.

If you were writing a report, which of the following sources for your report would be an example of a primary source?

Divorce is associated with diminished psychological well-being in children and adult offspring of divorced parents, including greater unhappiness, less satisfaction with life, weaker sense of personal control, anxiety, depression, and greater use of mental health services. A preponderance of evidence indicates that there is a causal effect between divorce and these outcomes. A study in Sweden led by the Centre for Health Equity Studies (Chess) at Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health found that children living with just one parent after divorce suffer from more problems such as headaches, stomach aches, and feelings of tension and sadness than those whose parents share custody. Children of divorced parents are also more likely to experience conflict in their own marriages, and are more likely to experience divorce themselves. They are also more likely to be involved in short-term cohabiting relationships, which often dissolve before marriage. There are many studies that show proof of an intergenerational transmission of divorce, but this doesn't mean that having divorced parents will absolutely lead a child to divorce. There are two key factors that make this transmission of divorce more likely. First, inherited biological tendencies or genetic conditions may predispose a child to divorce as well as the "model of marriage" presented by the child's parents.

According to this passage, having parents who divorce ___________

Argument over whether Australian housing is in a bubble has dragged on for over a decade. A Google search on the subject draws 600,000 returns. It even has its own Wikipedia page. Three years after the global financial crisis hammered prices in the United States and Britain, Australian home values are just 5 percent below their lifetime highs. Recently, prices have begun to tick up again thanks to lower interest rates and a sound banking system still able and willing to lend. Yet mortgage arrears are negligible, household debt has stabilized, savings are up sharply and unemployment is low, suggesting the housing market represents a modest threat to the economy. The head of the country’s central bank certainly wonders what all the fuss is about. “It has to be said that the housing market bubble, if that’s what it is, seems to be taking quite a long time to pop - if that’s what it is going to do,” observed Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) Governor Glenn Stevens. “The ingredients we would look for as signaling an imminent crash seem, if anything, less in evidence now than five years ago.”

From reading the text, which of the following best describes the Australian housing market?

In many ways Britten’s most ambitious effort is the War Requiem of 1961, a flawed but still impressive work for chorus, soloists, and orchestra. It weaves together the traditional Latin Mass for the Dead with antiwar poems by Wilfrid Owen, a young officer killed in World War I. The point of War Requiem is how the words of the liturgical text are reinterpreted and often rendered hollow by the realities of death in war. In this work we see Britten’s prodigal inconsistencies on display. For all its problems, the War Requiem will probably survive as one of our time’s most impassioned indictments of war and its heroic myth.

Which of the following most accurately summarizes the opinion of the author in the text?

Could the short films on video-sharing sites such YouTube ever rival films at the cinemas?

In parallel with its own exponential growth, my fascination with YouTube has galloped into a raging obsession. Whole evening, theoretically dedicated to writing, have been hijacked by a terrible need to click away from the Microsoft Word document, onto the internet browser, and from there the lure of YouTube is inevitable. What’s not to be fascinated by? However slick or however rickety, the best of these mini-movies have an unmediated quality, a found-object realness that is completely lacking in anything available in the cinema or on TV.

What does the writer say about his interest in YouTube?

Many of the latest scientific accomplishments fall in the realm of “pure” science. This is research for the sake of increasing man’s knowledge without concern about how the knowledge is going to be used. In contrast with pure science is “applied” science. The production of synthetic diamonds is an example of applied science. In applied science the facts and principles of pure science are used in the solution of a problem which has or will have immediate economic and social importance.
Often in the past, applied science has gone far ahead of pure science. Its practical applications have been used for man’s good even before the basic facts and principles were understood. For example, the telegraph, telephone and electric motor, which could not work without electrons, were invented before man discovered the electron. People were vaccinated long before viruses were investigated. Chemicals like sulfuric acid and soda were manufactured long before man began to understand the nature of the atom. Today, however, if applied science is to grow it must depend more and more on increased knowledge of pure science.

In the past, applied science went far ahead of pure science because:

Do you ever wonder why you are hungrier than usual if you do not sleep well? Researchers from the University of Chicago say they have found a reason. Their study shows that a lack of sleep makes people hungrier the next day. Sleeplessness releases chemicals in the brain that increase the pleasure of eating, and this makes us eat more, especially food that is high in calories. The researchers found that people who lack sleep crave snacks more than healthier foods. People in the study who did not get enough sleep ate up to twice as much fat content as when they slept for eight hours.
The study was conducted on 14 volunteers in their twenties. Researchers created two different situations. In one, the volunteers spent 8.5 hours in bed each night and averaged 7.5 hours of sleep. In the other, they spent just 4.5 hours in bed and averaged 4.2 hours sleep. In the first situation, the subjects ate three meals a day. However, in the second situation, the volunteers could not resist "highly palatable, rewarding snacks". This happened just 90 minutes after they had eaten a meal that gave them 90 per cent of their required daily calories.

What is the main reason people are hungrier than normal after poor sleep?

In 776 B.C., the first Olympic Games were held at the foot of Mount Olympus to honour the Greek’s chief god, Zeus. The warm climate for outdoor activities, the need for preparedness in war, and their lifestyle caused the Greeks to create competitive sports. Only the elite and military could participate at first, but later the games were opened to all free Greek males who had no criminal record. The Greeks emphasised physical fitness and strength in their education of youth. Therefore, contests in running, jumping, javelin throwing, boxing, and horse and chariot racing were held in individual cities, and the winners competed every four years at Mount Olympus. Winners were greatly honoured by having olive wreaths placed on their heads and having poems sung about their deeds. Originally these contests were held as games of friendship and any wars in progress were halted to allow the games to take place. They also helped to strengthen bonds among competitors and the different cities presented.

The Greeks attached so much importance to the games that they calculated time in four-year cycles called “Olympiads”, dating from 776 B.C. The contest coincided with religious festivities and constituted an all-out effort on the part of participants to please the gods. Any who disobeyed the rules were dismissed and seriously punished. These athletes brought shame not only to themselves but also to the cities they represented.

What is the main idea of this passage?

Marian Anderson's brilliant singing career began at age six when she sang spirituals at the Union Baptist Church in her hometown of Philadelphia. She toured Europe in the 1920s, drawing vast acclaim; however, when she returned to the United States she was still barred from performing 5 on the American operatic stage. After she was prevented from singing in Washington's segregated Constitution Hall in 1939, Eleanor Roosevelt intervened and arranged for Miss Anderson to perform at the Lincoln Memorial. A crowd of 75,000 people came to watch her sing before the Memorial. Marian Anderson's beautiful contralto voice broke down 10 racial barriers, showing white Americans that blacks had a profound contribution to make to America's cultural life. Eventually, in 1955, she became the first African- American singer to perform at New York's Metropolitan Opera. In her many years of touring she had to endure a racism that forced her to enter concert halls and hotels through 15 service entrances. Her grace under this stress showed a moral perseverance that paralleled that of the famous Martin Luther King, Jr.

We can conclude from the passage that Marian Anderson first toured Europe instead of the United States because

In many developed countries literacy skirts are under siege. This is true even in societies where access to primary education is universal and government invest heavily in education. New Zealand, for example, was reading the world in literacy rates in 1970, but tumbled to thirteenth Place in 2001 and then again to twenty-fourth just a few years later. Test scores in the USA also stumped ten percent during the 1990s despite the country riding an economic boom for much of the decade. In some cases, these statistics reverse trends that were in motion for over a century and a haft. The steady, graduate expansion of literacy across social groups and classes was one of the greatest successes of the period of industrialization that began in the mid-1850s.

This reversal of fortunes has led to widespread contention over the pedagogy of teaching Literacy. What was once a dry and technical affair—the esoteric business of linguists and policy analysts—rapidity escalated into a series of skirmishes that were prayed out in high-visibility forums : Newspapers ran special features, columns and letters-to-the-editor on the literacy crisis; politicians successfully ran their national campaigns on improving reading test scores; and parents had their say by joining Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) and lobby groups.

By “…was once a dry and technical affair...” the writer means that

Johannes Gutenberg was a pioneer in the use of movable type. When he began building a printing press in 1436, he was unlikely to have realized that he was giving birth to an art form that would take center stage in the social and industrial revolutions that followed.

Gutenberg was German, his press was wooden, and the most important aspect of his invention was that it was the first form of printing to use movable type. Although Laurence Koster of Haarlem also laid claim to the invention, scholars have generally accepted Gutenberg as the father of modern printing. Before Gutenberg, the printing press was used only to reproduce pictures, playing cards, and designs on cloth. Designs were cut in wood, stone or metal and transferred to parchment or vellum. Sometimes a few words of explanation were cut into the printing block, but that was the limit of text printing. Books were copied by hand by monks, which was a labor-intensive undertaking.

According to the passage, how were books reproduced before the printing press?

There were three big fish living in a beautiful lake by the city. They were very close friends. All three of them were very different from one another. The first fish believed in fate. He thought things cannot be changed and what has to happen will happen, no matter what. The second fish was intelligent. He thought he knew how to solve a problem with his intelligence. The third fish was the wise one. He thought long and hard before acting. One day, the fish were happily playing around in the water when the wise fish overheard a fisherman talking to another. “look at that one, what a big fish...This lake is full of big fish. Let us come back tomorrow and catch them.”

On hearing the news, the fish hurriedly swam to his friends. “Let us get out of this lake before those fishermen come back. I know of a canal that can take us to another lake.” The intelligent fish said “I can take care of myself if the fishermen come.” The fish who believed in fate said “whatever has to happen will happen, I was born in this lake and I am not going to leave it.” The wise fish did not want to risk his life and so he took the route through the canal and left his friends.

The fishermen came back the next day and cast their nets. They caught many fish along with the two friends who stayed behind. The intelligent fish acted as if he was dead and escaped The fishermen threw him back into the lake with all the other dead fish that were caught in the net. However, the fish who believed in fate was caught and killed.

Why did the wise fish leave the lake ?

The quest for sustainable sources of energy has led humans to study the energy potential of the sun and the wind, as well as the immense power created by dammed rivers. The oceans, too, represent an impressive source of potential energy. For example, it has been estimated that the oceans could provide nearly 3000 times the energy generated by hydroelectric dams such as the Hoover Dam. Yet this source remains quite difficult to exploit.

The word exploit in the passage is closest in meaning to

The question of authority among writers nags us less today than it did in the late Middle Ages, when poets and philosophers began daring to pen their works in the vernacular. Dante’s use of Italian rather than Latin in writing the Comedy was audacious and is the most telling example. But the Florentine had more to contend with than just establishing Italian as a valid tongue of literary expression. As Albert Russell Ascoli demonstrates in Dante and the Making of a Modern Author, he had to reckon with concepts governing the authority to write in the first place.

The writer suggests that Dante’s comedy represents____

Our research supports a number of recent studies that show the positive effect of gender parity in business. This year alone, three studies found consistent evidence for the business case. McKinsey reports that better-than-average financial performance is experienced by European companies with the highest proportion of women in leadership roles. Research at the University of Helsinki finds that companies with female chief executives or board directors achieve a 10 per cent higher return on capital, regardless of the company or sector, while Catalyst reports that Fortune 500 companies with the highest proportion of female directors are more profitable and efficient, on average, than those with the lowest.

The author use the research from Helsinki University as evidence that:

The world American colonists lived in during the eighteenth century was changing and becoming more complex. Between 1700 and 1750 the population in the English colonies increased from 250,000 to one million. In the seventeenth century most of the immigrants to English North America came from England. In the eighteenth century they came instead from Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, and Germany. In 1660 there were approximately 2,920 Africans living in the colonies. By 1760 there were 300,000 -- an increase of 1700 percent! In the southern colonies Africans made up 40 per cent of the total population and by 1720 Africans were the majority population in South Carolina. Most of the population increase in the colonies came from natural increase. The American colonial economy was built on and sustained by trade and these capitalist societies were tied increasingly to the economic network that spanned the Atlantic. Two revolutions took place during the eighteenth century: a consumer revolution and an industrious revolution. American religious, intellectual, and cultural life in the eighteenth century changed because of two movements: the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening. Both contributed to the humanitarianism that emerged at the end of the century and both were products of the world that capitalism created. The society in the eighteen-century became more diversified than it used to be.

What is true about 18th century American society?

An IMF report published in November 2002 gave a boost to supporters of increased flexibility. According to the IMF, “The UK labour markets are more flexible than those of other European economies. This flexibility has significantly contributed to low employment and high participant rates. Some of the authorities’ actively labour market policies, notably the New Deal for young unemployed appear to have met considerable success. However, programs aimed at the unemployed aged 25 and over, as well as at some other groups, have yet to prove their effectiveness and may need to include stronger job seeking incentives”.

According to the text, the UK has comparatively low unemployment among the young because they________

Did you know that boredom can increase creativity? I carried out some groundbreaking research into this myself with my student Rebekah Cadman, at the University of Central Lancashire, UK. Our research examined the relationship between boredom and creativity on a range of tasks and found that engaging in boring activities such as tedious writing exercises before undertaking creative tasks results in more productive thinking. We believe that the reason for this was that boredom allows daydreaming, which is a key to creativity. To measure whether creativity was indeed a result of daydreaming, a subsequent study was conducted based on similar activities but instead focused on reading instead of writing. The first study involved participants copying telephone numbers from a phone directory for 15 minutes so that we could explore the impact on subsequent levels of creativity shown in a divergent thinking task. Participants provided varied examples such as pencil pots, earrings, drums and plan pots. We found that the number of creative answers were higher for participants who completed a boredom task followed by the creative task than participants who completed the creative task in isolation. However, in the next study we had people read the phone numbers and found that levels of creativity then to be even higher. This suggests that passive activities, like reading or attending meetings, can lead to more creativity whereas writing, which inherently reduces the scope for daydreaming, lessens the chance to be creative.

Which following is correct about the relationship between boredom and creativity?

Like any work whose popularity outlives its own time, Gullivers’ Travels can be profitably and pleasurably read in a variety of ways by a great variety of readers. In modern times, by readers habituated to the predominant fictional form of the twentieth century, it has often been read as a kind of novel. In this reading, Gulliver is the central character, and we follow his exploits on his four voyages with an interest in his experience, his achievements, his development and his survival.

What does the author imply about?

During any space mission, whether it is manned or unmanned, the two most critical periods are liftoff and reentry. This fact is proven by the fact that every loss of life in the history of space exploration has occurred during a liftoff or reentry maneuver. Liftoff and reentry not only represent the times of greatest danger during a space mission, they also present the greatest science and engineering challenges to the planners and organizers of a space mission.

The major challenge during liftoff is to achieve a great enough velocity to break free of the Earth’s gravitational pull and escape the atmosphere. The velocity required varies depending on the type of the mission in question. For example, most orbital missions, like those to the International Space Station or the launching of a satellite, do not require the spacecraft to complete escape Earth’s gravitation pull. These spacecrafts simply need enough velocity to achieve a certain distance from Earth and then to maintain their orbit. The speed is needed for this is dependent on the type of orbit desired, but is generally around 24,000 kilometers per hour. Completely escaping the Earth’s gravity, as is need for interplanetary mission, is a far more difficult undertaking requiring a speed of 40,200 kilometers per hour.

Why are interplanetary missions more difficult?

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